Jet air standard

Jet engines were designed to power aircraft , but have been used to power jet cars and jet boats for speed record attempts, and even for commercial uses such as by railroads for clearing snow and ice from switches in railyards (mounted in special rail cars), and by race tracks for drying off track surfaces after rain (mounted in special trucks with the jet exhaust blowing onto the track surface).

Airbreathing jet engines are nearly always internal combustion engines that obtain propulsion from the combustion of fuel inside the engine. Oxygen present in the atmosphere is used to oxidise a fuel source, typically a hydrocarbon-based jet fuel . [2] The burning mixture expands greatly in volume, driving heated air through a propelling nozzle .

Two engineers, Frank Whittle in the United Kingdom and Hans von Ohain in Germany , developed the turbojet concept independently into practical engines during the late 1930s.

A jet engine is a reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion . This broad definition includes airbreathing jet engines ( turbojets , turbofans , ramjets , and pulse jets ) and non-airbreathing jet engines (such as rocket engines ). In general, jet engines are combustion engines.

In common parlance, the term jet engine loosely refers to an internal combustion airbreathing jet engine . These typically feature a rotating air compressor powered by a turbine , with the leftover power providing thrust via a propelling nozzle — this process is known as the Brayton thermodynamic cycle . Jet aircraft use such engines for long-distance travel. Early jet aircraft used turbojet engines which were relatively inefficient for subsonic flight. Modern subsonic jet aircraft usually use more complex high-bypass turbofan engines . These engines offer high speed and greater fuel efficiency than piston and propeller aeroengines over long distances.

The thrust of a typical jetliner engine went from 5,000 lbf (22,000 N) ( de Havilland Ghost turbojet ) in the 1950s to 115,000 lbf (510,000 N) ( General Electric GE90 turbofan) in the 1990s, and their reliability went from 40 in-flight shutdowns per 100,000 engine flight hours to less than one in the late 1990s. This, combined with greatly decreased fuel consumption, permitted routine transatlantic flight by twin-engined airliners by the turn of the century, where before a similar journey would have required multiple fuel stops. [1]

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